Why Are Women Living Longer Than Men

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Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? And why the advantage has grown in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However, صبغ الشعر بالاسود this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, صبغ الشعر بالاسود - made a post - there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

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In rich countries the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's now look at how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially over the course of the last century.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.